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:!: Update of Install OpenBSD 5.9 updated to openBSD 6.7 Tired of Systemd and some other layers in Linux, I will try to install OpenBSD my x230 Tablet, encrypting partitions with a key stored on a SD card/USBkey. (hello NSA)
I will use an openBSD67.
The x230 is modified, I added a mSATA drive (sd1) and changed the 500GB drive to a 1TB SSD(sd0) .
I removed totally Windows as I don't use it.

====== Downloads ======Lenovo X230T Install - Encrypted Install67.iso take the install*.fs for USB keys

disk Layout

I will use the following schema:

  • mSATA (sd1) 256GB for /
  • SATA (sd0) 1000GB for swap/var/home
Disk Partition Format Size Mount Point
1 1 RAID 230GB /
1 2 none 26GB fake trim
0 1 swap 16GB OpenBSD swap
0 2 RAID 950GB /var, /tmp and /home


Boot from the iso/usb key
Select the shell (by type 's') when arriving on the following:
(I)nstall, (U)pgrade, (A)utoinstall, (S)hell?

Disk partitionning

to know what disks are recognised

sysctl hw.disknames

We will create the above partitions using fdisk/disklabel tools.

fdisk -iy sd1

the output is

fdisk ; sd1: No such file or directory

Let's create the device

cd /dev
sh ./MAKEDEV sd0 sd1

An run again:

fdisk -iy sd1

the output is largely nicer:

Writing MBR at offset 0.
fdisk -iy sd0

Let's partition sd0 and sd1

disklabel -E sd1
sd1> a
partition: [a]
offset: [64]
size: [500103386] 95%
FS type: [4.2BSD] RAID
sd1*> w
sd1> q

Done for sd1 (I leave 5% free for TRIM as I got no clear details whether or not I need it or not if it is working or not and well 95% of 256GB should be enough for / :-) )
Let's partition sd0

disklabel -E sd0
sd0> a
partition: [a]
offset: [0]
size: [976773168] 16g
FS type: [4.2BSD] swap
sd0> a
partition: [b]
offset: [33559785]
size: [943213383]
FS type: [swap] RAID
sd0*> w
sd0> q

Here we do 2 partitions, swap (already encrypted) and a RAID one that will contained /var /tmp and /home)

SDcard/USBkey partitioning

Plug in your SD card/ USB stick, here it is named sd2

cd /dev
sh ./MAKEDEV sd2
dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/rsd2c bs=1m

Don't forget to create the MBR

 fdisk -iy sd2 

We just need around 1MB for the key so I will just create two very small partitions (d and e).

disklabel -E sd2
sd2> a
partition: [a]d
offset: [64]
size: [124735488] 2m
FS type: [4.2BSD] RAID
sd2> a
partition: [a]e
offset: [16065]
size: [124735488] 2m
FS type: [4.2BSD] RAID
> w
> q

Let's encrypt

So for now we have sd1(m-sata)/sd0(SSD)/sd2(USB key)
Next step is an all-in-one step: we will encrypt sd1a and sd0b as softraid0 and save the key on the SD card.

bioctl -c C -C force -k sd2d -l sd0b softraid0
bioctl -c C -C force -k sd2e -l sd1a softraid0

Note 2: if you don't put -C force you might end up with

 openbsd softraid0 chunk already in use

Output will be something like:

sd3 at scsibus1 targ 1 lun 0: <OPENBSD, SR CRYPTO, 006>
sd3: 937482MB, 512 bytes/sector, 1919964855 sectors
softraid0: CRYPTO volume attached as sd3


sd4 at scsibus1 targ 2 lun 0: <OPENBSD, SR CRYPTO, 006>
sd4: 244190MB, 512 bytes/sector, 50010858 sectors
softraid0: CRYPTO volume attached as sd4

We create the devices:

cd /dev
sh MAKEDEV sd3 sd4

Good practice, erase first MegaByte:

dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd3c bs=1m count=1
dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd4c bs=1m count=1

So now we have sd3 and sd4 which we will use during the installation.


Let's go back to the installation


Select layout, configure network[em0], root password, sshd, timezone, user(s)…
When at the partitioning point, select the 2 new device (sd3 and sd4 in my case).

Which disk is the root disk? [sd0] sd3
Use (W)hole disk MBR, whole disk (G)PT or (E)dit? [whole]W
[… auto partitions schema …]
Use (A)uto layout, (E)dit auto layout, or create (C)ustom layout? [a] c
sd3> a
partition: [a]a
offset: [64]
size: [475106246]
FS type: [4.2BSD]
mount point: [none] /
> w
> q

We do the same for sd4 (/var /tmp and /home)

which disk do you wish to initialize? [done] sd4
Use (W)hole disk MBR, whole disk (G)PT or (E)dit? [whole]W
sd4> a
partition: [a]a
offset: [64]
size: [943208216] 20g
FS type: [4.2BSD]
mount point: [none] /var
sd4> a
partition: [b]
offset: [41945696]
size: [901262584] 10g
FS type: [swap] 4.2BSD
mount point: [none] /tmp
sd4> a
partition: [d]
offset: [62910528]
size: [880297752]
FS type: [4.2BSD]
mount point: [none] /home
> w
> q

And voilà.

which disk do you wish to initialize? [done]

Install the sets

no proxy

Installation should finish with a success, but DO NOT REBOOT YET

Final touch

We will tweak quickly the fstab to add the swap partition as well as some parameters:

sed 's/rw/rw,softdep,noatime/g' /mnt/etc/fstab > /mnt/a
echo '/dev/sd0a none swap sw 0 0' >> /mnt/a
mv /mnt/a /mnt/etc/fstab  Still in ~/.xsession
<code bash>
# activate scroll wheel button
xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "WS Pointer Wheel Emulation" 0
xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "WS Pointer Wheel Emulation Axes" 6 7 4 5
xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "WS Pointer Wheel Emulation Button" 2
xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "WS Pointer Wheel Emulation Timeout" 50
xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "WS Pointer Wheel Emulation Inertia" 3

Done, everything is ready! ready to reboot


The trick for all this installation is that all sd* MUST have MBR otherwise you get an error like

openbsd softraid0: not valid softraid metadata


openbsd installboot: invalid boot record signature 0x0000 @ sector 0 Failed to install bootblocks -hyper

Solution for the above errors:

 dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsdXc bs=10m count=1

then repartition

Backup of the Keys

dd if=/dev/rsd2d of=key1.img bs=1m
dd if=/dev/rsd2e of=key2.img bs=1m

Switching to -current

Optional, but thrilling!

cd /
mv /bsd.rd /bsd.rd.sav



At boot prompt type:

boot> boot bsd.rd

Then use the “upgrade” method, give your keyboard layout, your root device/partition.
When upgrade is done, type again “reboot”.
Once reboot use sysmerge to merge/check modifications


And voilà ! you are in -current

Laptop tweaks


In order to keep some battery:

vi /etc/rc.conf.local


apmd_flags="-A"         # Set apmd(8) to automatic performance adjustment mode. 


rcctl enable apmd
rcctl set apmd flags -A
rcctl start apmd

desktop reactivity

In /etc/rc.conf.local add:


In /etc/login.conf change:


by (at least)




All set nicely


In your ~/.xsession

# deactivate touchpad
synclient TouchpadOff=1


# increase pointer speed

xinput set-prop "/dev/wsmouse" "Device Accel Constant Deceleration" 0.4


Still in ~/.xsession

# set locale
export LC_CTYPE="en_US.UTF-8"
export LC_MESSAGES="en_US.UTF-8"


First download everything needed:


ifconfig is your friend!
Simple example:

ifconfig iwn0 nwid "my nice wifi" wpakey "4m4z1ngP4$$" up

then if all is ok:

dhclient iwn0

You can scan networks (wifi)

ifconfig iwn0 scan

Failover network

local DNS



Basic rules in your /etc/pf.conf

#       $OpenBSD: pf.conf,v 1.54 2014/08/23 05:49:42 deraadt Exp $
# See pf.conf(5) and /etc/examples/pf.conf

set skip on lo

block return    # block stateless traffic
pass            # establish keep-state

# By default, do not permit remote connections to X11
block return in on ! lo0 proto tcp to port 6000:6010

set block-policy drop
match in all scrub (no-df random-id max-mss 1440)
antispoof quick for (egress)
block in quick on egress from { no-route urpf-failed } to any
block in all
pass out quick inet keep state



 pkg_add -iv dbus fprintd login_fingerprint libfprint
/etc/rc.d/messagebus start
rcctl enable messagebus

Additional Packages

Time to play with pkg_add to put some useful tools:

pkg_add -Uu
pkg_add -iv firefox
pkg_add -iv ImageMagick irssi vim zsh rxvt-unicode fvwm2 xscreensaver rdesktop iftop rsync wget curl figlet dfc git subversion ranger emelfm2 ccze htop


You can install ports using a snapshot made for you!

cd /usr
tar xvzf ports.tar.gz

Finding packages

Two ways:

pkg_info yourpackage


cd /usr/ports
make search key=what_you_search


Thing went wrong when

bootblocks are not installed

→ installboot: no OpenBSD partition
Failed to install bootblocks
You will not be able to boot OpenBSD from sd4

I had this issue when sd0 didn't had a MBR nor sd3 … dd saved the days :)


openbsd/x230t2.txt · Last modified: 2020/05/25 18:56 by warnaud